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ENGL 102 - Health Care Focus

Paper 1 Requirements

Introduction: Include a brief introduction to the study. In the introduction, you may set out your original research question, what led you to explore this group, and how you conducted the research.

History: Provide an overview of the history of the cultural barriers related to this specific group; you may look at general cultural challenges, but make sure to include a discussion of specific challenges in health and/or human services. In this section, you may include interviews, results of surveys, etc., in addition to scholarly works.

Discussion/Conclusion: After setting out the history of cultural barriers, take time to analyze your research findings. In the discussion section, explore the significance of your findings: what answers did you find to research questions? Are there specific suggestions/changes you would propose to improve services for this group?

How Professionals Approach This Topic

Look over the Aboriginal, Navajo Patients: Providing Culturally Competent Care document below to see an example of how you can use different types of academic/scholarly sources.  If you read the section titles, you will notice that the authors address the same topics that you need to address for Paper 1.  Pay close attention to the document's References page.  What do all the sources have in common?
All the sources have reputable authors or sponsors.  The reference list doesn't include any crowd-sourced websites, but there are plenty of scientific papers, nursing publications, government reports, and Navajo-sponsored information websites.
Look at a few of the document's sources a bit deeper.  Why are they such strong sources to understand health care barriers and challenges for the Navajo people? Look at the original documents first and use the Four W's to determine its quality.
Now check your answers by looking at the same documents with notes added.

What are Search Equations?

Search equations are strings of terms connected by relationship signifiers called Boolean operators.  There are three Boolean operators AND, OR, and NOT. Quotation marks are used to search phrases.

You can create complex search equations to combine many different relationships. Use parentheses to isolate some searches before applying them to the whole search.

You don't have to use search equations, but they will often improve the quality and quantity of your results.

What Type of Information Should I Use for My Paper?

Use the 4 W's to evaluate EVERY SOURCE you plan on using for the paper.

WHO: High quality information should always include the authors' name and their credentials.  Sometimes you will see the name of a group instead of specific names of individuals, like reports from a government agency or association.  This is okay!  Avoid anonymous information published on general webpages or by for-profit companies.

WHEN:  For health care topics, up-to-date information is vital!  For this paper, it is okay to use older information if it discusses concepts or ideas that are unlikely to change over time, such as cultural values or beliefs.  Always use the most current statistic or demographic information available.

WHAT: Some sources may provide you with an overview of an issue, but be sure to look for scientific studies that PROVE the problems or challenges exist.  When you use lots of different types of documents, it shows that you conducted wide research on the topic.

WHERE: Information published in an academic journal and retrieved from a database is created for the academic community.  Government information is often shared with the public on free webpages, but avoid using public websites geared to the general population.  There are higher quality sources!