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Information Skills - Cite Your Sources

APA Quick Links

APA Workshop Materials

Understanding APA Basics

APA is an author-date citation system.  This means that only the author and date are included in the text of your paper. Additional details for the source, including the title and retrieval information, are included on the References page.

In-Text Basics

References Page Basics


What About Missing Information?

Works without an Author

"For works with an unknown author, include the title and year of the publication in the in-text citation. ...  If the title of the work is italicized in the reference, also italicize the title in the in-text citation. If the title of the work is not italicized in the reference, use double quotation marks around the title in the in-text citation. Capitalize these titles in the text using title case, even through sentence case is used in the reference list entry. If the title is long, shorten it for the in-text citation." (APA, 2020, p. 264-265)

The title of the work moves to the author position in the full reference list entry as well.

Example Full reference list entry In-text Citation
Journal article with no author Proposed bill: Related to limitations on overtime for nurses. (2021). The Hawaii Nurse, 2(2), 9. (“Proposed Bill,” 2021)

Works with No Date 

"Sometimes the publication date of a work is unknown or cannot be determined. For works with no date, write n.d. (which stands for "no date") in parentheses. Put a period after the n and after the d with no space between the letters." (APA, 2020, p. 291)

Example Full reference list entry In-text Citation
Website article with no date American Nurses Association. (n.d.). About ANA. (ANA, n.d.)

Works with No Title 

"For works without a title, include a description of the work in square brackets instead. When possible, specify the medium in the description of the untitled work rather than including two bracketed descriptions" (APA, 2020, p. 291).

Example Full reference list entry In-text Citation
Photograph on a webpage with no title or author [Photograph of black spider monkey]. (n.d.). World Wildlife Fund ([Photograph of Black], n.d.)